Wednesday, August 26, 2020

How Businesses Use Learning & Memory to Affect Consumers Essay

How Businesses Use Learning and Memory to Affect Consumers - Essay Example In the event that we take a gander at the Mac, you can legitimately say that it implies high caliber and extravagance of PCs, in the event that we state it is Mercedes extravagance vehicles and sports vehicles BMW implies (Natale 2007 45-52). Those brokers have figured out how to their image, effectively utilizing touch framework and upgrade. They may significantly offer its famous image for lease to different organizations that are not brand uncivil with the negative picture. Conversation Businesses are generally moderately little capacity to utilize discipline or negative support. In any case, stopping meters frequently used to keep customers from taking important parking spot and makers may void your guarantee if purchasers take their item to unapproved fix office (Watkins 2006 294-303). A few elements impact adequacy of operant learning. As a rule, additional time impacts of conduct, particularly. At the end of the day, power organizations will be bound to urge shoppers to utiliz e less power at top occasions, when customers really need to pay when they utilized power (for example - space), yet not at end of month. Learning is additionally bound to happen when the individual can among conduct and outcomes (yet learning can happen regardless of whether connection doesn't know). Another issue is that building projects and eradication. Elimination happens when conduct keeps on having the effect on conduct and afterward in the long run quits occurring. For instance, if the traveler finds that shout at check - in staff didn't get its move up to initially class, it is probably going to stop this conduct. Now and then the individual is compensated each time you run conduct (e.g., customer gets the non-mixed refreshment at whatever point coins were presented machine). All things considered, it isn't important for learning time happens. Indeed, even remunerated uniquely every once in a while, conduct can be considered. A few structure programs are accessible: Fixed s pan, shopper gets the free sweet every Tuesday, when the person in question eats at the specific eatery. Fixed proportion: conduct is compensated (or rebuffed) for each nth time it is performed. (For instance, each tenth dedication introduced provided free). Variable proportion: Each time the activity is performed, there is some opportunity that be given. For instance, each time client enters store, the person in question gets the lottery ticket. With each ticket, there is the 20% opportunity to get the free burger. Customers can get the free burger twice, or the person can go multiple times without getting the cheeseburger once. Variable Reinforcement Is Least Vulnerable To Extinction Sometimes preparing might be important to instruct purchaser wanted conduct. At the end of the day, it might be conceivable to legitimately instruct customers to receive wanted conduct. For instance, client would first be able to get the great free (item itself, in the event that it is acceptable, it is the prize), at that point purchase with the enormous pennies off coupon, lastly purchase at significant expenses. Therefore, we are reinforcing approaches wanted conduct. Rather than presenting Coca - Cola legitimately in Indonesia, organic product soda pops were presented on the grounds that they were progressively similar to drinks are expended (Anderson and Farkas 2003 88-93). Buyer doesn't generally need to experience learning process itself; some of the time it very well may be learned by watching results of others. For instance, stores can make the serious deal out of warm up area proceeded with shop isn't so much since they need to stop this conduct among the individuals who were, and to debilitate practices in others? Moreover, watchers can relate to characters in promoting that

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Factors Associated with Divorce :: Divorce Marriage Relationships Essays

Variables Associated with Divorce Research appears there are 4 main considerations that improve the probability of separation A. Separation Caused By Age At Marriage 1. As age when hitched diminishes, probability of separation increments - Couples younger than 18 are considerably more liable to separate than couples who wed at any later age 2. More youthful Couples Are: - Unprepared for marriage - Unaware of what is anticipated from them - Not develop enough to deal with duties 3. Downsides - The more youthful you are the less dating experience you’ve had - Not certain what you truly esteem in an accomplice - Being youthful they may get exhausted and favor another marriage rather than their present one - Young couples have barely any reasons not to separate - May have hitched without guardians authorization, so separation might be bolstered by family - Likely don't have property together 4. Wedding because of pregnancy - Having a kid previously or right off the bat in marriage - Gives couple brief period to acclimate to one another and requests of marriage - May restrain the parents’ instructive and word related objectives - Increases budgetary strain on relationship B. Race 1. Studies show African Americans have higher separation rates than Whites or Latinos - African Americans additionally substantially more prone to stay in a â€Å"separated† status - Their more prominent probability of being jobless and living in neediness add to conjugal disturbance 2. African American ladies are: - Less prone to wed - More prone to separate or separation - Less liable to remarry On normal African American ladies spend just about a large portion of the measure of time white ladies spend in marriage. C. Financial Status 1. Lower financial layers of society: - Lower levels of training, Lower wages, Lower-status occupations - Higher conjugal unsteadiness rates Poor families are twice as liable to separation as nonpoor families. - Lower-status wedded couples may have higher separation rates since they

Wednesday, August 12, 2020

Summer the Coming Commencement

Summer the Coming Commencement Im happy to be here again for the summer. So I did this once my freshman year, stayed on campus, that is, working with the LIGO burst team, next to the Plasma Science and Fusion Center (with the enviable name), this was all on Albany street in those serious-looking and poorly landscaped NW buildings that no one really ever visits on a whim. Living in EC back then I managed the walk to work every day in half an hour on my scrawny legs but this year they wont nearly have to carry me so far because Im living at Bexley for the summer and working just a short distance away in the Kavli Center for Astrophysics (Bldg 37) on Vassar Street. Ive already talked about what the deal is with my research (Im continuing from last summer), but Im happy to see it move away from its SBU phase and hear that its finally totally legit to talk about it :). Though I used to enjoy the summers days walks to the NW buildings, today, this new location was a blessing. Yesterday, it was so hot and today, it is so cold again, and it rained on me in my tshirt as I crossed Mass Ave but thats totally all I needed to go. I prefer the hotter weather, I put my two opposing windows to use in my EC room and mixed the air all up with the fan and it felt good like another time, like freshman orientation all the way back when and Id found myself an MIT student for the first time and it was just so unbelievably hot here and nabbed this grungy old fan from a junk heap somewhere in East Campus and named her Lakeisha and promised wed be together forever. And yet, I found myself at a Lysosomal Diseases and the Brain Conference in Sacramento this last weekend and got introduced as a senior at MIT. Yikes. Of course, all the actual seniors are graduating come Friday. And I dont even remember when i signed up to be a commencement volunteer but here I am attending the training today and all looking forward to waking up at 6:30am on friday. Im stationed left of the stage, and Ill be looking snazzy and likely disheveled in my red commencement vest. Ive got no complaints, I have like a microscopic view of a bunch of my friends graduating, I get to take care of your heat strokes and Im fed free breakfast and lunch. My favorite part of any commencement is always the 50th year reunion class in their adorable red anniversary jackets marching in w/ the graduates, and just brimming and so so proud. So, yeah, kinda, I cant wait. I simply cant be cynical about a thing like this that brings so many people together with so much happiness. I love my room, I get to come back to it finally after the summer is over and the asbestos is gone: Post Tagged #East Campus

Saturday, May 23, 2020

Essay on Stem-Cell Research and the Media - 1614 Words

Stem-Cell Research and the Media Biomedical technology is getting much press due to the stem-cell debate. A controversial topic in itself, with the President of the United States taking a stand on the issue for funding purposes, the topic has received even more press over the consequences resulting from President Bushs decision. With the Presidents approval rating well over 80 percent since the September 11th attack, those who contest any of his decisions have been receiving feelings of anger from those who support him. I, however, would like to take a stand and contest Bushs decision to limit the stem cell research funding. This paper presents two articles that examine Bushs decision in different ways; one looks at†¦show more content†¦Readers of this article probably differ in their familiarity with Bushs decision; some already know about President Bushs decision to limit the funding of the research, and thus Begley found no reason to bring up the Presidents decision because many people have very stro ng opinions about the decision. Other readers, however, may not have previously known the actual funding limits created by Bush. Begley does not try to convey Bushs decision in this article, only to discuss the future research effects of this decision and announcement. In a way, Begley is trying to sell to the audience on the idea that 64 lines is not enough, thus taking a stand against Bushs decision to limit the federal funding of stem-cell research to the number of colonies currently in existence. While Begleys words do not imply any direct disagreement with Bushs limit, she would have taken a different approach and used different quotations if the purpose of this article were to commend the presidents decision that 64 lines are enough. In such a case, Begley would not have ended her article with 64 might not be 64 after all, but rather a quotation that suggests the potential power of the 64 lines. Begleys article attempts to immerse the reader in the stem-cell debate. A strong part of thisShow MoreRelatedThe Debate Over Embryonic Stem Cell Research1543 Words   |  7 PagesWhile embryonic stem cell research has been ongoing for more than 30 years, it has only become a controversial topic over the past decade. The embryonic stem cell was first isolated in 1981 by two scientists at the University of Cambridge. However, it wasn’t until 1998 at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, where the first batch of embryonic stem cells were created in a test tube. In 2001, President George W. Bush approved the use of federal funding for research on this topic, following this actionRead More Embryonic vs. Adult Stem Cells in Research Essay1615 Words   |  7 PagesEmbryonic vs. Adult Stem Cells in Research    Why is the mainstream media significantly downplaying exciting scientific discoveries with adult stem cells? This essay hopes to adequately answer that question. Heres the scoop: As originally reported late last year in the medical journal Blood, Dr. Catherine M. 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Which makes these discarded parts available for researchers to extract adult stem cells from. â€Å"Everything worth knowing about †¦ stem cells† (2016) Muscles have millions of adult stem cells that repair common injuries we all experience throughout life. These are obtained through biopsy. As stated in the article, they soak the cells â€Å" in a cocktailRead MoreThe Media And Its Portrayal Of Athletes1573 Words   |  7 PagesAccording to Knight and Giuliano’s 2001 article, gender equality has been and will remain a current topic of hot discussion in the media and its portrayal of athletes. Athletes have a unique ability to deliver their thoughts and information to the masses through the media outlets given to them in regard to their social status. Once the media has heard what the athletes have to say it can be at the media’s hand for interpretation. In this specific study 92 undergraduates were given a fake newspaperRead MoreEssay On Pluripotent Cells1143 Words   |  5 Pages). The use of pluripotent cells, allow researchers to conduct drug testing in a wide range of cell types. Thus, improving outcomes for patients with many neurological diseases. The loss of neurons and glial cells cause neurological disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease and multiple sclerosis. Current major therapies focus on oral medications, in the case of Parkinson’s disease, L-dopa, and dopamine receptor agonists, in addition to deep-brain stimulation in the subthalamic nucleus. FurthermoreRead MoreEssay about Alternatives to Human-embryo Stem-cell Research1145 Words   |  5 PagesHuman-embryo Stem-cell Research      Ã‚   This essay counters the media and many scientists claims that there are no viable alternatives to human-embryo stem-cell research (ESCR).    The media restate the claim (made repeatedly in NIH documents) that adult stem cells do not have the same potential as embryonic stem cells, which in theory can form any tissue. But studies done with adult stem cells (studies which mirror the ones done with embryonic stem cells) show that adult stem cells do have

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Human Resource Strategies Of Fashion - 1663 Words

According to Webster (2013) in the early years Flinders Lane and Surry Hills situated in Melbourne and Sydney were the two key locations that where the heart and soul of Australia’s fashion industry thrived. Later on the 20’s the industry has grown across suburbs, designer as well as brands has spread across Australia. However, Australian fashion retailer is in a challenging position, it has become a global shift in the last few years, with 15 percent of the world’s top 250 retailers has already set up stores in Australia (Heffernan, 2015). In this essay an attempt will be made to discuss the statement mentioned above and its implications on David Jones fashion retail business. Firstly, one of Australia’s top fashion retail stores, David Jones, will be discussed along with their failures Secondly, how Human Resources have an impact in fashion retails and the impact of external environment changes in the retail industry with be evaluated. Following by this discussion, human resource strategies of fashion retail international brand will be explained. Lastly, strategies that David Jones can implement will be mentioned. Finally the conclusion will be presented with implications. David Jones is known as the oldest retail store in Australia and is still maintaining under its actual name. This fashion retail brand aims make a significant experience for customers by making the store are informed as well as containing modern technology. It is evident that its target audience of DavidShow MoreRelatedZara Case Study : The Resource Based View1588 Words   |  7 PagesZARA Case Study Introduction The case study is upon on the resource based view. First, the firm resources were divided into three major parts: tangible resource, intangible resource and human resource as Grant suggested. The main body of the essay will also be divided into three parts according to the resource classification. Then, a VRIN test would be carried after listing different types of resources to inspect whether they are able to provide a sustainable competitive advantage for Zara. FinallyRead MoreLeading Online Fashion Retail Store1337 Words   |  6 Pagesorganisation as, which is the UK s leading online fashion retail store. aims to be the number one online fashion destination for twenty- something who love fashion. ASOS offers 50,000 product lines under its own label and third party brands, covering women-swear, menswear, footwear, accessories, jewellery and beauty product distribute to customer in over 190 countries from its central distribution centre in the UK. Aimed at fashion forward twenty-somethings, ASOS attracts over 17.5 millionRead MoreAnalysis of the Fashion Industry1301 Words   |  6 PagesFashion is one of the world’s most important creative industries. It has provided economic thought with a canonical example in theorizing about consumption and conformity. 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Abstract In recent years, the rapid changes in the fast fashion industry, a highly concerned about environmental issues as well as the sustainability for the company. Thus, it is a big challenge for the company s global operations to think about how to use the market intelligence, sensitive response and do moreRead MoreZara Essay1670 Words   |  7 Pagesrelatively globalized, particularly the fashion segment. Apparel retailing chains from Europe had been the most successful at cross-border expansion, although the U.S. market remained a major challenge. The above is in stark contrast to Zaras model which simply put is based on a vertically integrated demand and supply chain, while most other textile chains rely more on outsourcing and cheap labour. Zara studies its customers demand in the stores, through fashion shows of others, its own trend spotters

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Student Sport and Fitness Free Essays

Table of Contents 1. Introduction3 2. Key literature review3 3. We will write a custom essay sample on Student Sport and Fitness or any similar topic only for you Order Now Methodology5 4. Presentation of findings7 4. 1. Quantitative data7 4. 2. Qualitative data12 5. Data analysis14 5. 1. Perception of NTU’s Master Students towards sport and fitness14 5. 2. Do NTU Master Students maintain their health by participating in sport and physical activities? 15 6. Reflections on the Collection and Utilisation of Data17 6. 1. Reflective Observation18 6. 1. 1. Collection Data18 6. 1. 2. Utilisation of Data19 6. 2. Abstract Conceptualisation20 6. 3. Active Experimentation20 7. Conclusion21 References22 Appendices24 ? 1. Introduction Nowadays, Sport and Fitness is becoming more and more important in life of every people all over the world. According to Euro barometer (2010), it is because people are being aware of the vital of doing sport and physical activity to improving health both in physical and mental. However, due to the lack of information in connection with university student in the UK, this report investigates the perception and action of students towards sport and fitness of students in Nottingham Trent University (NTU). The data which is utilised in this study was acquired through quantitative and qualitative research. Questionnaire and interview are respectively conducted on 50 and 10 NTU’s Management Master Students of September course of the academic year 2011/2012. The respond rate is 100% for both types of researches. 2. Key literature review There are numerous studies of sport and fitness which illustrating vast benefits of sport participant. Sport and PA are constituents of enhancing health and enriching the social interconnection to support a meaningful life to people all over the world (GRANT, 2001; COLLINS and KAY, 2003:28; RENFROW et al, 2011). Nevertheless, International Olympic Committee (2011) emphasised the risk of insufficient sport and physical activities (PA) in adolescents which lead negative affect to health physically and mentally. Laverie (1998) suggests the most significant reasons encourage participants are have fun, learn new skills, make friends, social group. However, despite the recognition of sport’s vitality, not everyone participate in sport and PA, due to the differences of a number of factors. The table following illustrates two main factors which affect sport participation the most: age and gender. There are also some studies about other factors such as availability of green space and family culture. AUTHORSMain StudyAgeGenderOther factors VAN TUYCKOM, et al. (2010)Gender and age differences in regular sport participation across 25 European Countries. The level of participation in regular sporting activities varies among young adults, middle-aged adults, and older adults age categories. In general, men participate in regular sporting activities than women. COOMBES (2010)The relationship of PA and overweight which measured by accessibility and utilisation of green spacePeople tend to be more active and participate in sport and PA when being surrounded with more green spaces RENFROW, M. S. , et al (2011)â€Å"The relationship between sports participation and health-related physical fitness in middle school and high school. †Increase in male participant will increase health-related physical fitness, but not females due to the difference in kind of sport chosen. BIRCHWOOD, D. et al. (2008) WHEELER, S. 2012)Family culture has substantial affect to sport participation. Living in the family which parents invest a considerable amount in sport will influence children’s sporting participation in the future. In this research, the word â€Å"sport† is used not only for activities which require specific skills and fixed rules to compete against other individuals or teams in specific areas. It also involves leisured physical act ivities which do not require competition but also result health’s benefit such as going to exercise at gymnasium. In other words, it is called informal activities (L’AOUSTET and GRIFFET, 2001). BOREHAM and RIDDOCH (2001) mention that playing organised sports either formally or informally results healthy body for older children. Furthermore, people now participate in physical activities not only follow sport organisations but also on their own ways in the streets or in a park based on the need in expanding green spaces or downtown park for informal activities (Coombes, 2010, L’AOUSTET and GRIFFET, 2001). It is significant evidence demonstrating the benefit of sport and PA. The whole world understands the important of sport and PA in life and there are an increasing number of organisations with several policies to incite participant in sport and PA to maintain health and fitness such as Sport England. However, the main subject is mostly children, young adult, athletic student and older people. That is the reason to carry out this report. 3. Methodology In this research study, primary research was conducted with the purpose of collecting qualitative and quantitative data through questionnaire and one-to-one interview. Quantitative research was conducted on the sample of 50 management master students of Nottingham Trent University. The questionnaire was developed to examine the perception and action of students for participating in sports. The questionnaires with 14 questions (see more in appendix A) were given out to 50 management master students with the respond rate is 100%. The research attempted to focus on equally gender among respondents, yet the reality is 29 male and 21 female with a variety of age (Table 1) Table 1: Frequency of respondents on the basis of ages FrequencyPercentValid PercentCumulative Percent Valid1812. 02. 02. 0 2012. 02. 4. 0 2112. 02. 06. 0 22510. 010. 016. 0 23612. 012. 028. 0 241428. 028. 056. 0 251428. 028. 084. 0 2624. 04. 088. 0 2724. 04. 092. 0 3024. 04. 096. 0 3212. 02. 098. 0 3612. 02. 0100. 0 Total50100. 0100. 0 Qualitative research was conducted on 10 students. Each interviewee was asked eight questions within 8 minutes duration in average (see more in Appendi x C). All interviews were recoded under permission of interviewees and consequently were coded in order to be used in this study. Before carrying out the research, questionnaire and interview questions are piloted by all members in group 5-cohort D. 4. Presentation of findings 4. 1. Quantitative data Fortuitously, the ratio of students which place sport in priority position in their daily life is equally with 50% do and another 50% do not. There is an assumption that sport which was ranked as 1st, 2nd or 3rd is considered as important in their daily routine. The result illustrates only 22 respondents (44%) who ranked sport as important in their daily routine. Among those, there are 6 respondents who are female (Table 2). Fourth is the most popular ranking for importance of sport in women’s daily routine with 12 respondents. In any case, respondents completely agree that sport is benefit to maintain physical health. Table 2: The important of sport in daily routine on the basis of gender (1 as the most important, and 6 as the least important) GenderTotalCumulative Total MaleFemale How is important of sport in your daily routine? 1Count5166 % within How is important of sport in your daily routine? 83. 3%16. 7%100. 0% 2Count43713 % within How is important of sport in your daily routine? 57. 1%42. 9%100. 0% 3Count72922 % within How is important of sport in your daily routine? 77. 8%22. 2%100. 0% 4Count5121739 % within How is important of sport in your daily routine? 29. 4%70. 6%100. 0% 5Count62847 % within How is important of sport in your daily routine? 5. 0%25. 0%100. 0% 6Count21350 % within How is important of sport in your daily routine? 66. 7%33. 3%100. 0% TotalCount292150 % within How is important of sport in your daily routine? 58. 0%42. 0%100. 0% According to Figure 1, respondents who considered sport as important in daily life are scattered from age 18th to age 30th. The middle line represe nts the median of the sample which means the middle value of entire age sample; in this case, it is age 24th. The box size represents the distribution of the sample; in this case, the sample mainly distributed among those respondents whose ages are between 24th and 25th. Two little circles on the graph represented two values (18th age and 30th age) which extremely departed from the rest of sample. Figure 1: Box plots of ages among respondents who rated sport as most important. In addition to those 44% of above respondents, in term of sport, mostly they are spending on fees (sport club or gym club fees) (24% in 44%); following is equipment and others with 16% and 4% respectively (Table 3). Table 3: Frequency of respondents on the basis of which is spent most. FrequencyPercentValid PercentCumulative Percent Valid2856. 056. 056. 0 Equipment816. 016. 072. 0 Fees1224. 24. 096. 0 Others24. 04. 0100. 0 Total50100. 0100. 0 However, on the basis of gender, half of male (8 respondents) spend the most on equipment, 6 of the remainder spend on fees. On the other hands, 100% female merely spend on fees (Figure 2). Figure 2: What is the most spent on by male and female? In related to the frequency of sport participation, result signified 17 respondents doing sport 2 or 3 days per week which take 34% which is demonstrated on figure 3. Following right after are weekly and occasionally with 28% (14 respondents) evenly. Figure 3: Frequency of participating in sport and PA Regarding the attitude and action towards doing sport, sport playing in casual way is enjoyed the most according to 34 selections from respondents. The next most enjoyed is gymnastic activities in casual way with 15 selections. Following is doing sport and gymnastic activities in formal way with 13 and 4 selections respectively. Conversely, the most popular way that respondents really do is doing gymnastic activities in formal way with 26 selections. Follow formally work out at gymnasium are doing gymnastic activities in casual way, doing sport casually and doing sport formally with 23, 20, 18 selections correspondingly (figure 4). Figure 4: Differences between attitude and action towards doing sport. Regarding the place students choose the most for doing sport; sport clubs, gymnasium and parks are the priority choices (Figure 5). University ground is the least choice with only 4 selections. Figure 5: Where students choose to do sport the most. Result revealed only 24% (12 respondents) have joined sport clubs with major reasons are keep fit and having fun (included their self and with friends). There is an open format question which asked for reason why people in general joining sport clubs, results indicated involved for healthier, enjoyment and fitness, with the most popular reason is healthier (11 given) (Figure 6). It is noticed that only two-third of total respondents provide reasons. Figure 6: Most popular reasons for students joining sport clubs Laziness was the majority reason (34 selections) for miscarry out sport and PA of master students in NTU. Workload and time constraint respectively followed by with 15 and 13 selections (Figure 7) Figure 7: Most popular reasons for students to fail to participate in sport 4. . Qualitative data Research attained 7 out of 10 respondents have hobby which related to sport and physical activities (Table 4). Only one of them is doing sport formally that is defined as trainings with adequate facilities and coaches. Regardless of some respondents do not have sport hobby, everyone suggested sport is indispensable in life. They find it is healthier compare between before and after doing sport. Table 4: Common hobby which related to sport and physical activities cited by respondents R1R2R3R4R5R6R7R8R9R10 _Play badminton and tennis or sometime go to gym. Doing sport activities, especially training boxing. Playing basketball with friends. _Playing sport generally. â€Å"Going to gym†Ã¢â‚¬Å"Play football, swimming, badminton†_â€Å"Love swimming and skating† (Note: R is interpreted as Respondent) Despite of the similar sporting hobby, the reason for some respondents to participant in sport and PA is totally different (table 6). It is noticed not every respondents mention this in their answers. Laziness is the reason that every respondents (100%) suggested for unsuccessful in participating in sport and PA. Table 6: Reasons for respondents’ participation in sport and PA R1R2R3R4R5R6R7R8R9R10 N/ATo get ability to compete in matchesTo have fun with friends. Also it is better for health_N/Aâ€Å"I am not kind of sport person, but want to fit my body†To be healthy_N/A Result discovered the difference in participation in sport and PA of several respondents who are international students (R1, R2 and R3) betwee n in their home country and in the UK (Table 7) Table 7: Different in attitude of respondents R1In India: go to gym twice or thrice per week In the UK: no involvement in any sporting activities R2In India: playing badminton, tennis In the UK: go to gym only R4In Vietnam: swimming, play basketball everyday In the UK: playing basketball, but not very frequency. Regarding the awareness of doing sport whether in formal or informal way, moderately, respondents are aware of so many opportunities to exercise around them, yet, not all of students take that. Conversely, in some cases, students are not aware that they are doing exercise by taking those opportunities. 5. Data analysis 5. 1. Perception of NTU’s Master Students towards sport and fitness The objective of this research question is to clarify there is a tight relationship between sport and fitness regardless formal or informal form. Besides, it also examines the most important issue that students join sport and PA for. At a glance, from both quantitative and qualitative data, NTU students agreed sport and physical activities has a relationship to fitness. In other words, they are helpful to maintain their health not only in physical but also in mental side. Obviously, the result reflected equivalent points with key literature review. Research also realised NTU Master Students neither lean towards informal nor formal sport and PA. The fact is 43 students want benefit from sport and gym in casual way and 44 students want them in formal way (Figure 3). In other words, it can be said quite a lot of students actually do both formal and informal sport and PA. However, doing sport casually is the way they most enjoy. Related to qualitative data, most of respondents (exclude respondent 3) prefer casual way doing sport mainly due to laziness and time constraint. For example, respondent 7 perceived sport in his daily routine completely casually. His exercise mainly are walking on the street or going to gym and exercise on his way. Also according to figure 3, the outcome reflected the difference in students’ attitude towards participating in sports and the action they really do. Indeed, 34 respondents enjoy playing sport casually; however, only 20 students actually do that. Surprisingly, sport clubs where people can do sport formally is still the most popular place for NTU Master Students involving in sport and PA. With respect to which is spent on more in term of supporting participants, sport/gym club fees are spent on the most regardless the gender. Additionally, equipment is spent on predominantly by male. It is easily perceived that, female are more likely to get involve in sport and PA which is provided with convenience such as joining club to get full facilities and assistance from trainer. On the contrary, male students not only invest in fees but also in equipment and others which are able to offer substantial support to participants. Related to other study, findings indicated the most significant reasons which encourage NTU’s students join sport clubs are to be healthier, enjoyment and fitness. By means of that, it clearly proved NTU Master Student are truthfully concerned about their health. In contrast, when asking respondents whose hobby related to sport activities for participating reasons, 3 out of 4 respondents answered not related to health benefit. Competition, have fun with friends and body fit were the answers. Essentially, sport brings so many benefits in general; however, the benefits vary among different students. Whatsoever the benefits students want, health factor always exists. Indeed, doing sport require a large volume of movements including muscle groups used, hence, providing more strength, flexible and endured body and health (BOREHAM and RIDDOCH, 2001) In brief, NTU Master Students believe a relationship between sport and fitness regardless the way of acting neither formally or informally. There is a difference in students’ attitude towards doing sport and their real action. Health is the most concern issue for them to joining sport and PA. 5. 2. Do NTU Master Students maintain their health by participating in sport and physical activities? The objective of this research question is to find out whether students maintain their health by participating in sport and PA; and also expose factors influence students’ participating in sport and PA. From the sections above it is straightforwardly seen that, even though students recognise the important of sport in life and really care about their health, not every of them participating in sport and PA. Only 44% respondents considered sport as important in their daily routine. However, there is not matching with other figure. In fact, up to 50% respondents stated sport is priority in their daily routine. The reason of bias might due to not reflect carefully before ranking the importance of daily activities of some respondents (question 3, see more in Appendix 1). In term of learning the frequency of participating in sport and PA of NTU Master Students, playing sport 2-3 days per week was chosen by more than two third of the sample size. Unpredictably, exercising everyday was the fewest choice with only 2 selections. Both quantitative and qualitative data reflected that laziness is the most considerable reason causing unsuccessful in doing sport and PA of NTU’s student. Through interviews, in addition to laziness, almost agreed they felt on joining in sport and PA because they are busy with their study which can be considered as the combination of workload and time constraint options in quantitative data. It is vital to understand the most considerable factors affect students concerning their involvement in sport. For NTU’s Master Students, gender reflected the significant difference in their attitude towards sport and PA. Indeed, among 44% respondents above, 72% of them are male, only 28% are female. This result reflected the issue about factors which affect people’s participation in sport and PA in Van Tuyckom’s study (2010). However, only partial issue corrected as age tend to not have so much influence on NTU students’ participation (Figure 1). The reason is probably due to the limited on chosen sample which only master students. 24th and 25th are the most popular ages in this research due to the fact that normally, master students’ ages vary mostly between ages 22nd to age 25th. Therefore, it is understandable why respondents in 44% above mainly dispensed in those two ages. Added into the above, qualitative research discovered culture also played important role in term of influence NTU’s student in joining sport and PA. In more details, it is due to the differences in their social life and environment between their home countries and the UK. Respondent 2 expressed after coming to UK for study, she usually does not have so much time to exercise, therefore, going to gym and work out by her way in a short time is her solution for keeping fitness. Besides, respondent 4 who is influence to participate in sport by his friends stated due to lack of friends in the UK, he feel lack of motivation to do sport, therefore, he rather stay at home and play his favourite computer games than involving in sport. Despite participating in sport and PA in clubs, gyms or exercise on one self’s way to keep fit and healthy; there are tons of opportunities to exercise offered everywhere such as not taking a lift to go up but using a stair. Through qualitative research, when being asked for the awareness of opportunities to exercise of people in general, the outcome was moderately balanced. A number of respondents supposed people recognise opportunities to exercise during normal activities in life. Some of others expressed the disagreement. Respondent 4 said: â€Å"Almost my friends like to play computer games; we usually play games, so I don’t think they know what the opportunity to exercise is. † Regarding whether people take opportunities to exercise or not, the results depend on their attitude towards sport and fitness, and the situation is. Respondent 3 answered because he does not really count on fitness; thus, he takes lift when he feels lazy. Some respondents are happy to walk from home to school and vice versa as they enjoy exercising and also enjoy the fresh air. On the other hands, some people do not recognise themselves are exercising through their daily activities. Respondent 6 mentioned for generally female extremely love shopping, and that can be considered as an opportunity to exercise, but not everyone know it. Concisely, NTU Master Students do participating in sport and PA to maintain their health, yet, not everyone does. Research also figured out gender and culture have influence the rate of involvement. Besides, people understand there are so many opportunities to exercise around them; however, not all of them do. 6. Reflections on the Collection and Utilisation of Data Reflection is necessary in learning, which requires look back on what were been done, carefully think about it, learn from it to achieve more effective performance (Moon, 1999). In this section, Kolb’s learning cycle (1984) is used to facilitate the reflection of this report (Figure 7). I might start from reflection point forwards because concrete experience was what I have been doing from the beginning to the end of this report. Figure 7: Kolb’s Learning Cycle (Source: Kolb, 1984: p. 23) 6. 1. Reflective Observation 6. 1. 1. Collection Data At the beginning, we only concentrated to other core modules and underestimated the important of research method module. Therefore, we received almost negative feedback for formative presentation which was the chance for us to demonstrate our understanding of the given topic as well as research questions. After the leading from module tutor, we understood what we must focus on to draw appropriate research questions for our given topic. After our research questions were clear, learned from previous experience, we put a lot of effort to design questionnaire and interview questions from the starting point. Once again, we received a lot of negative feedback due to the lack of experience in designing questions. It was not because the questions did not support our research but the way of asking which were quite ambiguous and direct. As, those kinds of questions might cause difficulties for respondents when trying to answer them (Bryman and Bell, 2003). We learned from negative feedback, and redesigned them till reaching the most appropriate and supportive questions (see more in appendices A and C). Our group included five members had to conduct 50 questionnaires and 10 interviews. Consent form is attached to every single questionnaires and interviews for respondents to read, understand and sign in which could ensure respondents’ confidence. The works were divided equally to each member. Thanks to the support of the university, we could complete our mission within one week. Also, the focused sample was our university fellows who did exactly the same as we had to do. Therefore, they ready helped us to fill in questionnaires as well as were being so enthusiastic to answer our interviews. Despite of that, there were some limitations when collecting data. Firstly, we totally overlooked the gender factor in our sample involved due to our somewhat hasty when sending out questionnaires and delivering interviews which affected the final result. The fact, gender element did not affect so much on questionnaire analysis as luckily the ifferent ratio between female and male (0. 42:0. 5) among questionnaire sample was not significant. However, it did not repeat with interview sample (0. 3:0. 5). Therefore, in final result where related to gender, I could not compare and reflect the outcome between qualitative and quantitative data. Knowing that university created favourable conditions to help us working smoothly, so we tried to collect all quantitative data in only a few hours. That is why we could not control the quality of each form and consequently led to a number of bias data. Therefore, the results were considered as moderately convincing. Even though the questionnaire form was designed and piloted before sending out to respondents, there were a few mistakes which we did not recognise until the collecting and analysing data process had finished. For example, in questionnaire form, still there is a leading question (question 14) which â€Å"appear to lead respondents in a particular direction† (Bryman and Bell, 2003). Moreover, such question did not provide respondents space to express their view completely. Question 5 was quite ambiguous that made few people confused to answer and therefore led to unexpected result. Our questionnaire involved a couple of open questions. Although answers required more time in coding but it also brought wider knowledge to us. Yet, the respond rate could not achieve 100% for those questions because it required greater effort from respondents and normally many of them did not write expansively in questionnaires. Furthermore, question 9 and 10 was likely unhelpful to research questions. 6. 1. 2. Utilisation of Data We agreed to use Microsoft Excel as a first place where quantitative data are put together. Similarly, after interviewing, each member has a duty to write down transcripts of their interviews. Our leader was responsible for putting all data together and would send it to every member with purpose of ensuring same set of data is used. After receiving all data, SPSS and Excel were used at the same time to assist me analyse quantitative data in this report. On the other hands, interview data was coded with purpose of using in qualitative analysis. Two set of data subsequently were compared and contrasted to each other to find differences and similarities. I believe our data are moderately reliable and valid. Firstly, our selected sample was current NTU Master Students therefore; the results are repeatable for those studies with same kind of sample. Even though only 85% quantitative data was used due to some of asking questions did not relevant to research questions; the remaining data was helpful to deliver meaningful information which directly answered our research questions. However, it is undeniable the limitation in utilising data, due to unachievable 100% respond rate in a couple of questions and the lack of designing questions. Indeed, there were too little options for respondents to choose in some questions. For example Question 13 actually had a wide range of answers, yet, we only provided 4 options included â€Å"other options†. 6. 2. Abstract Conceptualisation Bryman and Bell (2003:36) emphasise the vital role of research questions in implementing a research. Therefore, it is necessary and fundamental to draw appropriate research questions clearly from the starting point of a research. Consequently, qualitative and quantitative research must be designed under research questions in order to collect data that helpful in providing meaningful final results. In term of designing questions, sample size and gender ratio must be noticed to enable to gather supportive data. Testing questionnaire on some of our friends before sending out to ensure all questions are useful and enable to avoiding such as leading, ambiguous questions. Besides, put more effort during collecting period to avoid randomly answer from respondents. Throughout the researching period, we experienced not only academic works but also team working. Even though this is not our first time working together, yet the first time working together for such a long time. We understand that effectiveness of the whole group brings huge positive effect to our results. Meeting on time, responsibility and enthusiasm are found as important in order to achieve the most effective result. 6. 3. Active Experimentation If I had to do this report again, I would try out what I have learnt from experiences. Firstly and also the most important thing is I would put highly concentration from the very beginning. I would improve my designing questions skills through reading more books before starting designing. That would save my time as well as increasing the effectiveness of the questions in particular and for whole research in general. When collecting data, I would be more concerned on choosing sample in order to get more reliable and validity data. When analysing data, analyse skills are extremely essential to be able to get the best out of the data. With the purpose of getting better research, I would improve my analyse skills and get better help from computer assisted such as SPSS for quantitative data or NVivo for qualitative data. Last but not least, when working with team, I would make sure that the group would follow three elements above to work as the most effective manner. 7. Conclusion Throughout this research, the research questions raised at the beginning are able to be answered. Regarding sport and fitness topic, research found out the difference between attitude and action of NTU Master Students. Furthermore, differences due to gender, culture are also discovered. In addition to sport, although students are able to recognise opportunities to exercise in their daily life, they are not likely to engage in. A number of reasons were spotted concerning the failure in involving in sport and exercise. In general, it would bring highly effect to several health issues such as obesity which is extremely alert to not only developed countries but also developing countries. References ALAN, B. 1. , and BRYMAN, A. , 1947-, 2003. Business research methods. Oxford: Oxford : Oxford University Press. BIRCHWOOD, D. , ROBERTS, K. and POLLOCK, G. , 2008. Explaining differences in sport participation rates among young adults: Evidence from the South Caucasus. European Physical Education Review, 14 (3), 283-298. BOREHAM, C. , and RIDDOCH, C. , 2001. The physical activity, fitness and health of children. Journal of Sports Sciences, 19 (12), 915-929. COLLINS, M. F. , and KAY, T. , 2003. Sport and social exclusion. Psychology Press. COOMBES, E. , JONES, A. P. and HILLSDON, M. , 2010. The relationship of physical activity and overweight to objectively measured green space accessibility and use. Social Science Medicine, 70 (6), 816-822. EUROBAROMETER, 2010. Sport and Physical Activity [pdf] Available at: http://ec. europa. eu/public_opinion/archives/ebs/ebs_334_en. pdf [Accessed 11/04/12] GRANT, B. C. , 2001. ‘You’re never too old’: beliefs about physical activity and playing sport in later life. Ageing and Society, 21 (6), 777-798. International Olympic Committee consensus statement on the health and fitness of young people through physical activity and sport. 2011. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 45 (11), 839-848. KOLB, D. A. , and KOLB, D. A. 1984. Experiential learning : experience as the source of learning and development. Englewood Cliffs, N. J. ; London: Englewood Cliffs, N. J. ; London : Prentice-Hall. L’AOUSTET, O. , and GRIFFET, J. , 2001. The Experience of Teenagers at Marseilles’ Skate Park: Emergence and Evaluation of an Urban Sports Site. Cities, 18 (6), 413-418. MOON, J. A. , and MOON, J. A. , 1999. Reflection in learning and professional development : theory and practice. London: London : Kogan Page. RENFROW, M. S. , CAPUTO, J. L. , OTTO, S. M. , FARLEY, R. R. and EVELAND-SAYERS, B. , 2011. The Relationship between Sports Participation and Health-Related Physical Fitness in Middle School and High School Students. Physical Educator, 68 (3), 118-123. VAN TUYCKOM, ,CHARLOTTE, SCHEERDER, J. and BRACKE, P. , 2010. Gender and age inequalities in regular sports participation: A cross-national study of 25 European countries. Journal of Sports Sciences, 28 (10), 1077-1084. WHEELER, S. , 2012. The significance of family culture for sports participation. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 47 (2), 235-252. Appendices Appendix A: The questionnaire utilised to collect data STUDENT SPORTS AND FITNESS This questionnaire is designed as part of our research project which relating to Sport and Fitness among NTU Master Students. Please note that your participation is voluntary and that your data are anonymous and confidential. 1)Age: †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 2)Gender: ? Male ? Female 3)Please rate the following options based on the activities you carry out in your daily routine: (Rank on the scale of 1-6, 1 being more time allocated and 6 being least time allocated). ? Sport or exercise ? University work ? Home ? Job (Part-time/full-time) ? Social life Others If you rank out sports/exercise between 1 to 3 than answer 4th question 4)Which of the followings do you spend more on (in term of sport): ? Fees (club/gym membership) ? Equipment ? Other 5)In what ways and for what reasons you choose to do sport/exercise (Select with v) EnjoyWant Benefits Casual PlaySport Formal Play Casual PlayGym Formal Pl ay 6)How often do you play? ? Everyday ? 2-3 days per week ? Weekly ? Monthly ? Occasionally 7) Does sports/exercise take the priority position in your daily routine? ? Yes? No 8) Where do you usually play sport? ? Sport clubs Parks ? University grounds ? Street ? Gymnastic ? Other options 9)Are you aware of the different sports clubs available in the university? ? Yes? No 10)Have you join a sport club? ? Yes (go to Q11)? No (go to Q12) 11)Why did you join? (Give 1 or 2 reasons) †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢ € ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 12)Why do other students join sport clubs? (Give 1 or 2 reasons) †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 13)Think of your friends who do not â€Å" do† sport. Why? ? Laziness ? Workload ? Time constraint ? Other reasons 14)Do you think sports are helpful in maintaining physical health? ? Yes? No Thank you for your precious time. We would be glad to have your name and email address if you wish to be interviewed about this phenomenon. Name: †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ Email address: †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. Appendix B: Completed questionn aire Appendix C: The interview questions utilised to collect data Question 1: What hobbies/activities you like doing in your spare time? Question 2: How people perceive about sports in their daily routine? Question 3: Do you think there is a relationship between sport and fitness? Question 4: What difference do you feel before and after doing sports? Question 5: Why people engage themselves in sports? Question 6: Do people recognise opportunities to exercise? (Did you take that? Or what reason for not taking that? ) Appendix D: Observation sheet that other group member has performed on my interview Appendix E: Observation sheet that I have performed on my group member’s interview How to cite Student Sport and Fitness, Essay examples

Sunday, May 3, 2020

Childhood Depression Essay Example For Students

Childhood Depression Essay What is Depression?Most adults and many children and adolescents have a few bad days here and there, sometimes three or four in a row. When this happens, your mood is bad, you feel like jumping on people for nothing. You sleep, but you do not rest. You eat, but you are not hungry. Your life is one big chore. Everything that was fun is work and what usually is work is like walking with lead boots. Often you have stomach aches, headaches, aching, dizziness and other symptoms, but the doctors can not find anything wrong. When family and friends want to talk, you do not listen. If you can, you stay alone and wish they would all just go away. And you think about what you have got to do, and you wish you could put it off for ever. And about what you have done, and about what could go wrong, and how you could never live like this for 30 more years. Of course not everyone has all those symptoms every time. When people are clinically depressed, they have this for weeks, months, and often year s. Nearly everyone knows someone who has been severely depressed as 6% of the worlds population has had an episode of severe depression like this. Suicide occurs in 15% of depressed people. Depression in school-age children may be one of the most overlooked and under treated psychological disorders of childhood, presenting a serious mental health problem. Depression in children has become an important issue in research due to its many emotional forms, and its relationship to self-destructive behaviors. Depressive disorders are of particular importance to school psychologists, who are often placed in the best position to identify, refer, and treat depressed children. Procedures need to be developed to identify depression in students to avoid allowing those children struggling with depression to go undetected. Depression is one of the most treatable forms of disorders, with an 80-90% chance of improvement if individuals receive treatment (Dubuque, 1998). On the other hand, if untreate d, serious cases of depression in childhood can be severe, long, and interfere with all aspects of development, relationships, school progress, and family life (Janzen, ; Saklofske, 1991). The existence of depression in school-age children was nearly unrecognized until the 1990s. In the past, depression was thought of as a problem that only adults struggled with, and if children did experience it, they experienced depression entirely different than adults did. Psychologists of the psychoanalytic orientation felt that children were unable to become depressed because their superegos were inadequately developed (Fuller, 1992). More recently, Clarizio and Payette (1990) found that depressed children and depressed adults share the same basic symptoms. In fact, only a few minor differences between childhood and adult depression have been found. Childhood DepressionDepression in children has become difficult to treat due to a lack of referrals for treatment, parental denial, and insufficient symptom identification training (Ramsey, 1994). In addition, recognizing and diagnosing childhood depression is not a simple task. According to Janzen and Saklofske (1991), depression can develop either suddenly, or over a long period of time, it may be a brief or long term episode, and may be associated with other disorders such as anxiety. The presence of a couple of symptoms of depression is not enough to provide a diagnosis. A group of symptoms that co-occur, and accumulate over time should be considered more serious. According to Fuller (1992), childhood depression may account for a variety of behaviors, for example, conduct disorders, hyperactivity, enuresis, learning disability, and somatic complaints. Fuller (1992) also reports that depression in children may coexist with irritability, low self-esteem, and inability to concentrate. Also, children may internalize depression maladaptively, perhaps expressing it through conduct disorders, hyperactivity, or attention deficit disorders (Fuller, 1992). DiagnosisMany School Psychologists are not required to diagnose affective disorders in students, but do need to assess and develop interventions for them. The DSM IV appears to provide much help to School Psychologists to determine the symptoms that indicate a particular disorder, and to relay that information to professionals outside of the school. According to Callahan and Panichelli-Mindel (1996), it may be difficult to provide a diagnosis when childrens symptoms do not easily fit any categories. A lso, a child that does not clearly fit into a diagnostic category may go without treatment when treatment is needed (Callahan ; Panichelli-Mindel, 1996). The childs diagnosis appears to be the most important aspect in planning the appropriate treatment or intervention. Thus, misdiagnosing a child could be harmful.Dubuque (1998) suggests that school staff should be alert to the symptoms or signs of depression in children, for example: persistent sadness or hopelessness, inability to enjoy previously favorite activities, increased irritability, frequent complaints of physical illness, such as headaches and stomachaches, which do not get better with treatment, frequent absences from school or poor performance in school, persistent boredom, continuing low energy or motivation, poor concentration, a major change in eating or sleeping patterns, poor self-esteem, a tendency to spend most of their time alone, suicidal thoughts or actions, abuse of alcohol or other drugs, or difficulty deali ng with everyday activities and responsibilities. Information on childhood depression should be passed on to community members, children, and families with children (Dubuque 1998). Training programs can be implemented for school staff about childhood depression (Dubuque, 1998). To assist in identification of children in need of intervention, a variety of instruments to assess depression in children are available, including: The Childrens Depression Inventory (CDI), The Childrens Depression Scale (CDS), The Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale (RADS), The Reynolds Child Depression Scale, and The SAD Persons Scale (Ramsey, 1994). Reynolds (1990) reports that although School Psychologists do not usually use clinical interviews but they appear to be one of the most effective means of assessment of depression. Clinical interviews allow an exploration of symptoms, information regarding whether possible symptoms are related to depression, or other factors (Reynolds, 1990). According to Dixon, (1987), there are four types of depression: normal, chronic, crisis, and clinical. the four types are distinguished by degree, intensity, duration, cause, hopefulness, response to treatment and level of functioning (Dixon, 1997). Normal depression is defined as mild periods o f depression, linked to certain events that affect a students mood periodically (Ramsey, 1994). Chronic depression involves frequent bouts of depression, often without an identifiable cause (Ramsey, 1994). Depression in a crisis state usually reflects a lack of problem-solving skills, and can be accompanied by feelings of sadness, and despair (Ramsey, 1994). Clinical depression involves a predisposition in personality paired with a crisis state (Ramsey, 1994). Clinical depression in considered as having most severe prognosis due to the fact that after a long period of therapy, a clinically depressed student may or may not return to their normal level of functioning. Jackson 1 (2752 words) EssayBibliography1) American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision, Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Association, 2000. 345-346. 2) Clarizio, H.F., ; Payette, K. (1990). A survey of school psychologists perspectives and practices with childhood depression. Psychology in the Schools, 27. 57-63. 3) Dubuque, S.E. (1998). Fighting childhood depression. Education Digest, 63, 64-69. 4) Fitts, S.N., Landau, C. (1998). Brief therapy doesnt work. Brown University Child and Adolescent Behavior Letter, 14, 10-11. 5) Janzen, H.L., ; Saklofske, D.H. (1991). Children and depression. School Psychology Review, 20, 139-142. 6) Ramsey, M. (1994). Depression in adolescence treatment: Depression in childrentreatment; Counseling. School Counselor, 41. 1-7. 7).Reynolds, W.M. (1990). Depression in children and adolescents: Nature, diagnosis, assessment, and treatment. 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